Referencing styles used in academic writing

Got a fast-approaching deadline. As a general rule a reference list includes every source that you have cited in your work, whilst a bibliography also contains any relevant background reading which you have consulted even those sources that are never mentioned in the narrative.

For more about the different referencing styles used at Massey University, see referencing styles. It is the most common referencing style used at Massey University.

Aside from avoiding plagiarism, attributing your research is crucial in ensuring that your work is firmly anchored in academic tradition. Failure to properly acknowledge sources is called plagiarismand it can carry significant academic penalties.

Morley-Warner discusses how university students can learn to acquire and convey the appropriate academic tone in their assignments. If you are uncertain whether to reference something or not, it is better to reference it. Reporting verbs 'discusses', 'suggests' and 'describes' are used to introduce the material quoted.

Like any skill, it takes time and patience to learn. You may also be required to provide a full bibliography. Using an automated reference generator to create an accurate bibliography allows students to work smarter, leaving them more time to focus on their studies.

This citation would also have a reference list entry giving full bibliographic details. At Massey University Massey University uses a range of different referencing styles.

Referencing for students: RMIT Harvard style

Referencing is needed when: References are indicated by superscripted numerals and the full references are then given in endnotes. Last names of authors of works referred to plus their publication year are provided in parenthetical references. A brief history of time: Have a study or assignment writing question.

The writer introduces the quotation and does not simply reproduce it.

What is referencing?

The latest edition consists of in-text citations and a reference list, along with rules for formatting the paper itself. Longer quotes A longer quote is referred to as a block quote. Through this process, Morley-Warner maintains, students will develop critical thinking and writing skills that will allow them to participate in academic debate and even to challenge ideas.

Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: If you are unsure what referencing style you are required to use, check your introductory course materials. Je, S-S, Rivas, F. Sandridge, "Expectations of older adults regarding the use of hearing aids," J.

Public policy in Australia and New Zealand: Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Harvard referencing gets even easier with Cite This For Me for Chrome - an intuitive, handy browser extension that allows you to instantly create and edit a reference whilst you browse the web.

Four months later, Kang Sheng — a member of the Politburo Standing Committee described by his foreign biographers as Mao's 'evil genius'6 — spelled out the heuristic rule-of-thumb to be employed to tell the apparent from the real 'masses': If a style is not specifically mentioned, ask your course coordinator.

The closely related Turabian style—which derives from it—is for student references, and is distinguished from the CMOS by omission of quotation marks in reference lists, and mandatory access date citation.

The full references are then listed in the order in which they appear in the text at the end of the article. These are rarely used, but some assignments will require you to follow styles such as the Australian Guide to Legal Citation or styles specific to a print journal.

In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.

Below is a summary from the above extract using the Harvard style of referencing. Today APA referencing is adopted in term papers, research reports, literature reviews, theoretical articles, case studies etc.

These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles. There are other differences between these two styles. The notes are indicated by digits, which then recur with the full reference at the bottom of the page footnote or after the entire text endnote.

Short quotes A short quote is a sentence or part of a sentence that has been reproduced word for word. Integrating information and ideas from sources into your writing is a complex task, involving several skills. MLA (Modern Language Association) style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.

MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. A distinctive characteristic of academic writing is that it is based on reading and research, and that it discusses the ideas and findings of other writers.

As a student writer, therefore, it is essential that you know how to discuss the work of other writers and researchers, and correctly. Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU. APA Style Central is a comprehensive and authoritative online resource that is designed to assist with the application of APA style formatting rules.

In some fields and reference styles, they are mainly given as numerals indicating a certain source, whereas other disciplines favour a style where references are integrated in the text to a larger extent.

Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide (Macmillan Study Skills) [Richard Pears, Graham Shields] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.


This is the leading guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, covering everything from understanding plagiarism and identifying sources to setting out quotations and creating a reference list.

Massey University uses a range of different referencing styles. APA style is the most common referencing style, but different schools, departments, and lecturers may have their own requirements.

APA style is commonly used in Education, Business, and some Social Sciences and Humanities disciplines.

Referencing styles used in academic writing
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What is referencing? - OWLL - Massey University